Technology Spain  SALAMANCA 27/05/2014

Obtained the generation and measurement of an isolated X-ray attosecond pulse

The University of Salamanca has worked with scientists of Universities of Colorado in Boulder and Delaware in the United States, and Tsing Hua in Taiwan in a research published at the scientific magazine 'PNAS'

The Research Group in Extreme Optics of the University of Salamanca works with scientists of Universities of Colorado in Boulder and Delaware in the United States, and Tsing Hua in Taiwan, with the objective of studying the generation of X-rays by laser. The renowned scientific magazine Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) has just published a new work of this team of scientists whose novelty is that they have been able to generate and measure an isolated X-ray attosecond pulse. This advance has consequences in the development of nanotechnology because it supposes a step ahead in the control of extremely fast processes which involve high levels of energy.

Reproducción artística de la creación de un pulso de attosegundo aislado (azul) a partir de un pulso infrarrojo láser (rojo). Crédito: Ming-Chang Chen.
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Health Brazil  SãO PAULO 27/05/2014

Lack of vitamin D impairs kidney function

Study at the Medical Investigation Laboratory (LIM12) at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP)

In addition to the well-known problems with bone mineralization, vitamin D deficiency has recently been associated with the development of cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases, high blood pressure and several types of cancer. Now, a study at the Medical Investigation Laboratory (LIM12) at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine (FMUSP) has revealed that the lack of this nutrient may also impair kidney function and compromise that organ’s ability to recover from injury.

Fotomicrografías de la corteza renal de una rata de control (arriba, a la izq.), de una rata con deficiencia de vitamina D (arriba, a la der.), de una rata isquémica (abajo, a la izq) y de una rata con deficiencia del nutriente y sometida a isquemia ren
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Science Argentina  NEUQUÉN 23/05/2014

Found the youngest species of a known Diplodocid, the only one in South America

Argentinian scientists find in North Patagonia an unknown dinosaur, but with older relatives in other continents, which was called 'Leinkupal laticauda'

Argentinian scientists have found a new species of Sauropoda dinosaur called Leinkupal laticauda, the only register of the Diplodocid family (Diplodocidae) in South America and the last of them that survived in the world, since the ones of the other continents are older. The work has just been published in the magazine PLOS ONE and talks about a small-sized dinosaur compared to the ones of its race, but with a powerful tail.

Leinkupal laticauda se defiende de depredadores. Ilustración: Jorge Antonio González.
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Health Argentina  BUENOS AIRES 23/05/2014

Epigenetics and embryonic development: changes with consequences

CONICET researchers study how the DNA is modified in the first moments of life through the interaction with the environment

Pablo Hernán Strobl-Mazzulla, CONICET associate researcher, leads the Developmental Biology Laboratory at the Biotechnology Research Institute – Chascomús Institute of Technology (IIB-INTECH, CONICET-UNSAM). This place is dedicated to the study of epigenetic mechanisms that act in early stages of the development of vertebrates using chicken embryos as experimental models.

Imagen de un embrión de pollo. Foto: gentileza investigadores.
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Health Colombia  BOGOTÁ D.C. 21/05/2014

APOEe4 and TOMM 40 genes could be related to Alzheimer’s development

It is estimated that Alzheimer impacts 24 million people in the world of which 250,000 are in Colombia

A research project carried out by the UNal Genetics Institute’ (IGUN, for its Spanish acronym) Neurosciences Group determined that APOEe4 and TOMM 40 genes could be related to occurrence of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). The research project carried out by Jenny Consuelo Ortega Rojas as her Neurosciences thesis project was entitled, “Study of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms -SNPs- in Alzheimer’s patients in a Colombian sample. Approach to haploid genotypes”.

Investigadora del Instituto de Genética de la Universidad Nacional (IGUN). FOTO: UN.
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Health Spain  SALAMANCA 20/05/2014

New therapeutic target cell against breast cancer

Scientists of Cancer Research Center of Salamanca identify a key protein in the development of the most frequent breast cancer subtypes

Scientists of Cancer Research Center of Salamanca have identified the protein R-Ras2, also known as TC21, as a therapeutic target cell against breast cancer, that is, a molecule on which, in theory, drugs to combat this illness can act. After five years of work, the researchers of this center, a mix of CSIC and the University of Salamanca, have verified that while eliminating this protein in lab rats, the growth of primary tumors has stopped and lung metastasis has been avoided. This work has been published today at the renowned scientific magazine Nature Communications.

Mercedes Dosil, a la izquierda, y Xosé Bustelo, en el laboratorio.
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Social Sciences Spain  SALAMANCA 19/05/2014

The vast world of crystals

Studying crystals has several applications in fields like Medicine, Geology or Agriculture and the University of Salamanca counts on many research groups that are going to participate of the International Year of Crystallography

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Health Brazil  BRASIL 19/05/2014

Identification of genes related to susceptibility to arthritis

Validation in humans of findings from experiments on mice will pave the way for the development of new therapies and tests that allow the prediction of disease progression

In experiments on mice, researchers at the Butantan Institute have identified a set of genes involved in susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis – a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease that mainly affects the joints.

Radiografía de artritis reumatoide.
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Health Colombia  BOGOTÁ D.C. 15/05/2014

Bacterium resistant to five groups of antibiotics discovered

Researchers of the UNal Biotechnology Institute’ Bioinformatics and Molecular Epidemiology Research Group are currently working on genome analysis

Acinetobacter Baumannii was initially considered to have low clinical value, but has now been isolated from healthcare related environments. This microorganism is regularly found in soil; however it may cause severe infections in vulnerable people which generally occur in intensive care and neonatal units. Infections produced by this bacterium are linked to healthcare treatments as they are usually contracted in healthcare centers.

Unidad de neonatales. FOTO: Felipe Castaño/UN.
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Technology Spain  MADRID 13/05/2014

The largest electrical networks are not the best

There is an optimum size for electrical networks if what is being considered is the risk of a blackout

There is an optimum size for electrical networks if what is being considered is the risk of a blackout. This is the conclusion reached by a scientific study done by researchers at Universidad Carlos III in Madrid (UC3M); the study analyzes the dynamics of these complex infrastructures.

Electricidad. Foto: UC3M.
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Nutrition Brazil  BRASIL 13/05/2014

Study improves method for detecting mercury in fish

Brazilian university group conducts metalloproteomics analysis, studying the structural characterization of metal-binding proteins

Mercury, a potentially toxic metal that is capable of accumulating in the body, is being found in Amazonian rivers as residue from mining activities and, in some locations, occurring naturally. Its presence is affecting the aquatic fauna and could affect humans who consume fish that contain mercury.

Peces antárticos. FOTO: USACH.
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Social Sciences Perú  PERú 08/05/2014

“String theory could let us understand the Universe in its integrity”

Doctor Barton Zwiebach, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and an expert in string theory, explained why this theory is so interesting

In string theory, gravitation is an adjusted version of Einstein’s theory of relativity. Doctor Barton Zwiebach, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and an expert in string theory, explained why this theory is so interesting and how it differs from Einstein’s theory at the colloquium Generalized Geometry And Gravitation in String Theory.

Doctor Barton Zwiebach, a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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Health Brazil  BRASIL 07/05/2014

Protein produced in adipose tissue triggers inflammation that causes diabetes

A Brazilian is the principal author on a Harvard University study published in journal 'Cell Metabolism'

The relationships among obesity (mainly visceral fat), chronic systemic inflammation and the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes are well established in the scientific literature.

Diabetes.
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Nutrition Panama  PANAMÁ 06/05/2014

What do millions of tree measurements say about chimate change?

STRI and Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, is particularly interested in how trees of different sizes respond to environmental variation

The number of tree diameter measurements made across the Smithsonian’s Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS)- ForestGEO network is over five million. For Kristina Anderson- Teixeira, who leads the network’s ecosystems and climate initiative, the wealth of data presents a unique opportunity. “I’m working to leverage our data to understand the forests’ interactions with the climate system and how these forests are likely to respond to climate change,” said Teixeira during a recent visit to Panama’s Barro Colorado Island.

Mediciones del diámetro de árboles realizadas a través de la red del Centro de Ciencias Forestales del Trópico (CTFS)-ForestGEO del Smithsonian. FOTO: STRI.
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Technology Spain  MADRID 05/05/2014

An intelligent vehicle that can detect pedestrians at nighttime

The system is made up of infrared cameras which capture body heat

Researchers at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) have designed a new pedestrian detection system for cars which works in low visibility conditions; the system is made up of infrared cameras which capture body heat.

Un coche inteligente detecta peatones. Foto: UC3M.
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Nutrition Colombia  CALDAS 02/05/2014

Melting of El Ruiz and Santa Isabel glaciers is hastening

Students and professors of UNal Manizales and Medellín carried out a research project in which they considered possible melting of these glaciers and therefore determine the floodable areas of the El Rosario area in Manizales

For the year 2030 the snowcapped Nevado del Ruiz mountain top could be completely extinguished. The situation of the Santa Isabel glacier is even more critical and will cease to exist in eight or ten years. Given the current situation and the speedy climatic change, students and professors of UNal Manizales and Medellín carried out a research project in which they considered possible melting of these glaciers and therefore determine the floodable areas of the El Rosario area in Manizales.

Glaciar. FOTO: UN.
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Nutrition Panama  PANAMÁ 30/04/2014

Humand drive evolution of conch size

Smithsonian scientists found that 7,000 years ago, this common marine shellfish contained 66 percent more meat

The first humans to pluck a Caribbean fighting conch from the shallow lagoons of Panama’s Bocas del Toro were in for a good meal. Smithsonian scientists found that 7,000 years ago, this common marine shellfish contained 66 percent more meat than its descendants do today. Because of persistent harvesting of the largest conchs, it became advantageous for the animal to mature at a smaller size, resulting in evolutionary change.

Caracol peleador caribeño. FOTO: STRI.
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Technology Spain  MADRID 28/04/2014

A system detects global trends in social networks two months in advance

Works using just 50,000 Twitter accounts

A new method of monitoring identifies what information will be relevant on social networks up to two months in advance. This may help predict social movements, consumer reactions or possible outbreaks of epidemics, according to a study in the Universidad Carlos III of Madrid (UC3M) is participating.

Cascada de propagación de información en redes sociales. Crédito: Esteban Moro/UC3M.
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Health Spain  SALAMANCA 25/04/2014

Advance in preventing restenosis

The magazine 'Nature' has published an article of German scientists who counted on IBFG of Salamanca to advance in the cardiovascular problem which causes a great number of deaths in the United States

One of the most popular cardiovascular problems is atherosclerosis, which consists in the obstruction of the passage of blood through arteries by the formation of an atheroma plaque because of cholesterol excess and other substances, which may cause cardiac arrests and cerebrovascular problems. A common solution is to place a stent, a tube that presses the atheroma plaque against the blood vessel and doing so restores the blood flow. Though, after this operation usually occurs a restenosis, a new obstruction in the same place due to the proliferation of cells in the smooth musculature of blood vessels’ inner layers.

Stent.
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Nutrition Panama  PANAMÁ 25/04/2014

Why not be honeybees queen?

If becoming a queen is as simple as flying off to start a nest in a stick, why don’t they all head straight to the top of the social and reproductive hierarchy?

Unlike honeybees or bumblebees, some female sweat bees may choose their rank in life: queen, solitary mother or worker in a queen’s nest. If becoming a queen is as simple as flying off to start a nest in a stick, why don’t they all head straight to the top of the social and reproductive hierarchy?

Beryl Jones, estudiante de doctorado en la Universidad de Illinois en Urbana-Champaign. FOTO: STRI.
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