Health Spain  SALAMANCA 24/04/2015
INESPO II

Drivers have bad memories

A study by the University of Salamanca confirms that driving reduces the brain's efficiency in other tasks that one tries to carry out at the same time, such as memorising the details of a conversation

The Recognised Research Group (Grupo de Investigación Reconocido, GIR) on Memory and Cognition of the Universidad of Salamanca has been studying for years different processes of the human memory, in particular the frequent distortions it suffers under normal conditions. One of these lines of research, which is being carried out in collaboration with experts from the United States, has led it to analyse what occurs when a person is driving a car. Experiments show that the efficiency of remembering the information received in this situation is very low.

Conductor al volante
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Health Brazil  SãO PAULO 24/04/2015

New bioglass reduces risk of titanium implant failure

The new material, informally called F18, is made of silica, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus. Its properties include accelerating the formation of bone tissu

Researchers in the Materials Engineering Department of the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar) in São Paulo State, Brazil, have developed a new glass material with bioactive properties (bioglass) that, when deposited on the surface of titanium dental and orthopedic implants, reduces the risk of cracking caused by bacterial infection and accelerates the bonding of these metal prostheses with bone tissue (osseointegration).

Superficie de titanio con biovidrio. FOTO: C. R. CHINAGLIA
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Health Portugal  CASTELO BRANCO 23/04/2015
INESPO II

Caffeine in moderate doses stimulates the formation of spermatozoids

A study reveals that low or moderate doses of caffeine encourage spermatogenesis, but that in high doses it could be harmful

A study indicates that caffeine can influence spermatogenesis, the formation of male gametes or spermatozoids. The study, which has been carried out by the Universidad de Beira Interior and recently published in the scientific journal Toxicology, indicates that caffeine in low or moderate doses stimulates this process, while in high doses it could be harmful.

Células de Sertoli humanas. Foto: Raquel L. Bernardino.
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Nutrition Spain  BURGOS 22/04/2015

An extra molar is identified for the first time in an Atapuerca hominid

This individual suffered dental decay, abscesses, pulpits, periodontal disease, severe dental wear and tooth picking marks

Human dentition is composed of 3 molars in each side of the mandible and maxilla. An extra tooth (supernumerary tooth) is something really weird. In present-day populations ranging from 0'1 por ciento to 3'4 por ciento. Instead this is an ancient phenomenon.

El cuarto molar es el primero por la izquierda - IPHES.
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Social Sciences Chile  ATACAMA 22/04/2015

ALMA reveals intense magnetic field close to supermassive black hole

This new observation helps astronomers to understand the structure and formation of these massive inhabitants of the centres of galaxies, and the twin high-speed jets of plasma they frequently eject from their poles

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has revealed an extremely powerful magnetic field, beyond anything previously detected in the core of a galaxy, very close to the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. This new observation helps astronomers to understand the structure and formation of these massive inhabitants of the centres of galaxies, and the twin high-speed jets of plasma they frequently eject from their poles. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science.

Esta ilustración muestra el entorno de un agujero negro supermasivo como los que suele haber en el centro de muchas galaxias. FOTO: ESO/L. CAL�ADA
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Nutrition Panama  PANAMÁ 21/04/2015

Squeezing through the energetic bottleneck

The tiny transmitters Dina Dechmann places on bats cannot surpass five percent of their body mass

The tiny transmitters Dina Dechmann places on bats cannot surpass five percent of their body mass. Unfortunately for Teague O'Mara, a Marie Curie Fellow based at the Max Plank Institute for Ornithology, STRI and the University of Konstanz no such restrictions exist for bat-tracking biologists. His gear includes a large, hand-held antenna, bulky headphones, a radio receiver hanging around his neck since his hands are full, and a sound recorder—all connected by a couple meters of cable. A GPS receiver, headlamp, compass and water complete the kit.

Equipo de expedición en pleno rastreo de murciélagos. FOTO: STRI
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Health Portugal  CASTELO BRANCO 20/04/2015
INESPO II

Over 28% of children are exposed to cigarette smoke in the family car

Research carried out by the Universidad de Beira Interior shows that Portuguese children aged nine whose parents smoke suffer five times more exposure to cigarette smoke in cars

An extensive study carried out by the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Universidad de Beira Interior of Covilhã, in collaboration with the Universidad del Miño of Braga, has found that over 28% of Portuguese children aged nine are exposed to cigarette smoke when they travel by car. Experts thus draw attention to this problem, which is particularly serious as these children are inhaling toxic substances in enclosed spaces, and recommend that measures should be taken.

Imagen de un hombre fumando un cigarrillo.
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Technology Spain  MADRID 20/04/2015

Developing a robotic therapist for children

It helps physically challenged children by encouraging them to perform exercises and correcting if not done properly

In collaboration with other national institutions, researchers at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) are designing a new therapeutic tool for motor rehabilitation for children. In this project, an interactive social therapist robot, which is totally autonomous, is able to perceive patients’ reactions and determine if they are doing their exercises correctly.

Grupo investigación de la UCM con el robot
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Nutrition Argentina  SANTA FE 20/04/2015

Scientists discover new molecules involved in the development of citrus canker

These findings will promote the development of new strategies to control this disease

Significant advances in plant-pathogen interactions were made at the Plant-Microorganisms Interaction Laboratory of the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology of Rosario (IBR, Conicet-UNR). This laboratory has long experience in the study of citrus canker, a disease caused by a bacterium called Xanthomonas citri subsp. Citri, which is one of the main phytosanitary problems of Argentine citrus farmers.

De izquierda a derecha: Ainelén Piazza, Jorgelina Ottado, Betiana Garavaglia y Natalia Gottig. FOTO: IBR
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Science Spain  VALLADOLID 17/04/2015
INESPO II

Arcadia: a project for highlighting the archaeological heritage

The Arcadia Institute for Cultural Promotion of the University of Valladolid was founded in the year 2000 by the lecturer Manuel Rojo Guerra. In its 15 years of existence it has awarded over 150 grants for archaeological research

Arcadia is an Institute for Cultural Promotion that arose in the year 2000 from the Department of Prehistory, Archaeology, Social Anthropology and Science, and Historiographical Techniques of the University of Valladolid. It is attached to the General Foundation of the University of Valladolid (Fundación General de la Universidad de Valladolid, FUNGE) and its main objective is the promotion of projects of the research, dissemination, and highlighting of heritage matters.

El equipo de investigación de Arcadia trabajando en el abrigo de Valmayor XI. FOTO: Manuel Rojo Guerra.
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Environment Portugal  COIMBRA 17/04/2015
INESPO II

The effects of climatic change on soil microorganisms are modulated by the depositing of nitrogen in the atmosphere

A team of scientists from Spain, Portugal, and the United States have carried out an experiment to demonstrate the key role of the depositing of nitrogen as a modulator of the responses of temperate woodland to climatic change

Researchers from Spain, Portugal, and the United States have found that the effects of climatic change on the functioning of soil microorganisms are modulated by the depositing of nitrogen in the atmosphere. The amount of nitrogen pollution in the atmosphere in an area will determine the response of the system to the expected changes in precipitation as a consequence of climatic change.

Una de las zonas de estudio. FOTO: Jorge Durán.
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Nutrition Colombia  COLOMBIA 17/04/2015

Iron nanocubes will help decontaminate water

Lead, mercury and orange II colorant will be inhibited by iron nanocubes developed between UNal and the University of Purdue

“In absence of a magnetic field, the behavior of these pollutants is like a liquid but in presence of this field, materials with iron nanoparticles acquire properties as if they were solids and may be easily eliminated,” said Professor Álvaro Duarte, who heads the UNal Department of Chemistry’s Group of New Nano and Supramolecular Materials.

Los nanocubos de hierro serán usados para descontaminar aguas residuales. FOTO: UN
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Nutrition Spain  SALAMANCA 16/04/2015
INESPO II

Nitric oxide is vital for the germination of seeds

The Hispano-Portuguese Institute for Agricultural Research (Instituto Hispanoluso de Investigaciones Agrarias, CIALE) of the University of Salamanca is beginning to obtain results as part of a European project that aims to make better quality seeds availa

A team from the Hispano-Portuguese Institute for Agricultural Research (CIALE) of the University of Salamanca has confirmed that nitric oxide (NO), a molecule that regulates many plant processes, is vital for seed germination. The finding is part of an extensive project designed to improve seed quality in which researchers from several European countries are taking part.

�scar Lorenzo, en el invernadero del CIALE.
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Nutrition Brazil  SãO PAULO 16/04/2015

New strategy can help to prevent and treat sepsis in diabetics

A new strategy with the potential to treat sepsis in patients with type 1 diabetes has been proposed by researchers at the USP in a paper published in the journal 'Science Signaling'

In experiments with diabetic mice, the research group at USP’s Biomedical Science Institute (ICB) achieved a 40% reduction in mortality due to sepsis by treating the animals with a substance that inhibits the synthesis of an inflammatory mediator known as leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Similar drugs are already used to combat asthma and other allergic conditions. “Our work shows that type 1 diabetic mice present sterile inflammation that is dependent on this mediator, LTB4. This base inflammation increases the susceptibility to sepsis,” said Luciano Filgueiras, the first author of the paper. Inflammation is termed sterile when it is not due to infection.

Macrófagos de ratón diabético obtenidos mediante inmunofluorescencia. FOTO: LUCIANO FILGUEIRAS
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Nutrition Spain  LEÓN 15/04/2015
INESPO II

Cases of infection by Janibacter terrae in humans are published for the first time

The study published in the ‘Infection’ journal shows that this bacteria is not only present in the environment, as up to now it had been exclusively isolated from the soil

Researchers from the departments of Clinical Microbiology and Internal Medicine of the University Welfare Complex of León, the Institute of Biomedicine of the University of León (IBIOMED), the National Microbiology Centre of the Carlos III Health Institute, and the University School of Physiotherapy of the Spanish Organisation for the Blind (Organización Nacional de Ciegos Españoles, ONCE) of Madrid have published for the first time four cases of bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the blood) owing to Janibacter terrae in humans.

Cultivo de J. terrae en MHS a las 72 horas de incubación en aerobiosis a 35 grados. FOTO: I. Fernández Natal.
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Social Sciences Chile  ATACAMA 15/04/2015

Complex organic molecules discovered in infant star system: hints that prebiotic chemistry is universal

For the first time, astronomers have detected the presence of complex organic molecules, the building blocks of life, in a protoplanetary disk surrounding a young star

This discovery, made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), reveals that the protoplanetary disk surrounding the million-year-old star MWC 480 is brimming with methyl cyanide (CH3CN), a complex carbon-based molecule. Both this molecule and its simpler cousin hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were found in the cold outer reaches of the star's newly formed disk, in a region that astronomers believe is analogous to our own Kuiper Belt -- the realm of icy planetesimals and comets beyond Neptune.

Artist impression of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star MWC 480. FOTO: ALMA
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Nutrition Spain  VALLADOLID 13/04/2015
INESPO II

A national project will document some 50,000 ceramics from the Els Trocs Cave

Researchers led by the lecturer of the University of Valladolid Manuel Rojo Guerra will record all the material from the various excavations carried out since 2009 on this Neolithic site

Scientists of the Research Group into the Recent Prehistory and Protohistory of the Spanish northern plateau of the University of Valladolid, led by the lecturer Manuel Rojo Guerra, are working on the 2013-2016 National Research Plan Paths of the Neolithic II: analysis and documentation. Its ultimate objective is to study and record all the material from the various excavations carried out since 2009 in the Els Trocs Cave in the Aita Ribagorza region in the province of Huesca, a Neolithic site some 7,300 years old.

Cerámicas recuperadas de la cueva de Els Trocs, en la alta Ribagorza (Huesca). FOTO: Manuel Rojo Guerra.
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Health Argentina  ARGENTINA 13/04/2015

The key to treat cardiovascular diseases could lie in the heart of the fruit fly

Researchers at Conicet use this insect as a study model to find information about heart failures or arrhythmia in humans

Drosophila melanogaster is the scientific name of the fruit fly. Apart from the morphological differences they have with human beings, both have similar genetic characteristics. For this reason, the insect has been usually used as a study model for human cardiovascular diseases. A group of scientists, led by Paola Ferrero, assistant researcher of the Conicet at the Cardiovascular Research Centre (Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares CIC, Conicet – UNLP), undertake a project called “Drosophila melanogaster as a study model to research into human cardiovascular diseases”.

Manuela Santalla y Paola Ferrero en su laboratorio. FOTO: CCT LA PLATA
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Health Spain  SALAMANCA 10/04/2015
INESPO II

A study shows serious deficiencies in the sex education of university students

A study of the University of Salamanca alerts us to the dependence of young women on their partners

A study of the University of Salamanca shows a great lack of knowledge of sexual health among young university students of the first academic years of this institution. Ignorance of diseases of sexual transmission and risky behaviour are common. Moreover, the research also detected that young women have a high emotional dependence on their male partners; this was not the case in previous generations.

Pareja de jóvenes en un parque. Foto: INTEF.
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Social Sciences Colombia  COLOMBIA 10/04/2015

Jupiter satellite similar to Earth in its beginnings

The volcanic activity from Io, a satellite of Jupiter is similar to that of Earth in its beginnings. This was a conclusion of the first research project on planetary volcanology carried out at UNal

According to UNal alumnus and US doctoral volcanology candidate, David Fernando Tovar, this discovery leads to the idea that comparing the situation of Earth with this Jupiter moon, volcanic activity is considerable greater in the latter.

�o, satélite de Júpiter, el más activo del Sistema Solar. FOTO: UN
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